This briefing paper focuses on the evolving role of smugglers in West Africa’s migration economy, as well as migration and smuggling patterns in West Africa and between West and North Africa. The Mixed Migration Monitoring Mechanism Initiative (4Mi) carried out a total of 153 interviews with smugglers and 3,406 interviews with refugees and migrants in Mali and Niger between August 2017 and August 2018. The surveys provide unique insight into the role of smugglers and their interaction with refugees and migrants. 4Mi survey data was complemented by semi-structured interviews and focus groups, and a literature review.
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