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Smuggling, Trafficking, and Extortion: New Conceptual and Policy Challenges on the Libyan Route to Europe

This paper contributes a conceptual and empirical reflection on the relationship between human smuggling, trafficking and kidnapping, and extortion in Libya. It is based on qualitative interview data with Eritrean asylum seekers in Italy. Different tribal regimes control separate territories in Libya, which leads to different experiences for migrants depending on which territory they enter, such as Eritreans entering in the southeast Toubou controlled territory. We put forth that the kidnapping and extortion experienced by Eritreans in Libya is neither trafficking, nor smuggling, but a crime against humanity orchestrated by an organized criminal network. The paper details this argument and discusses the implications.

Date of Publication
Type of Resource
Target Audience
Academia
Author
Katie Kuschminder
Anna Triandafyllidou
Source / Publisher
Language
Geographic Scope
Country
Libya
Eritrea
Italy
Workstream Output
No
Regional Review Process
No
Cross Cutting Theme
Keywords
Smuggling of migrants
Trafficking in persons
Status
Published

*References to Kosovo shall be understood to be in the context of United Nations Security Council resolution 1244 (1999).