Trafficking in persons and the smuggling of migrants are often presented in an overly simplified way. The truth is that both crimes are very complex. For an effective and sustainable response, it is important to understand these complexities. A gender-responsive approach to human trafficking and migrant smuggling takes into account the different needs and circumstances of people of all genders and reveals the complexity of these crimes. This enables us to better understand patterns and trends and adapt our response accordingly. That is why we must take into account gender, age and victims’ and migrants’ rights to effectively combat trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants.